Amazon Covert Redirect Bug Based on Kindle Daily Post, Omnivoracious, Car Lust

Anonymous-hackers

 

Amazon Covert Redirect Bug Based on Kindle Daily Post, Omnivoracious, Car Lust

— Amazon Covert Redirect Based on Kindle Daily Post, Omnivoracious, Car Lust & kindlepost.com omnivoracious.com carlustblog.com Open Redirect Web Security Vulnerabilities

“Amazon.com, Inc. (/ˈæməzɒn/ or /ˈæməzən/) is an American electronic commerce company with headquarters in Seattle, Washington. It is the largest Internet-based retailer in the United States. Amazon.com started as an online bookstore, but soon diversified, selling DVDs, Blu-rays, CDs, video downloads/streaming, MP3 downloads/streaming, software, video games, electronics, apparel, furniture, food, toys and jewelry. The company also produces consumer electronics—notably, Amazon Kindle e-book readers, Fire tablets, Fire TV and Fire Phone — and is a major provider of cloud computing services. Amazon also sells certain low-end products like USB cables under its inhouse brand AmazonBasics. Amazon has separate retail websites for United States, United Kingdom & Ireland, France, Canada, Germany, The Netherlands, Italy, Spain, Australia, Brazil, Japan, China, India and Mexico. Amazon also offers international shipping to certain other countries for some of its products. In 2011, it had professed an intention to launch its websites in Poland and Sweden.” (Wikipedia)

 

All kindlepost.com, omnivoracious.com, carlustblog.com are websites belonging to Amazon.

“The Kindle Post keeps Kindle customers up-to-date on the latest Kindle news and information and passes along fun reading recommendations, author interviews, and more.”

“Omnivoracious is a blog run by the books editors at Amazon.com. We aim to share our passion for the written word through news, reviews, interviews, and more. This is our space to talk books and publishing frankly and we welcome participation through comments. Please visit often or add us to your favorite RSS reader to keep up on the latest information.”

“Car Lust is, very simply, where interesting cars meet irrational emotion. It’s a deeply personal exploration of the hidden gems of the automotive world; a twisted look into a car nut’s mind; and a quirky look at the broader automotive universe – a broader universe that lies beneath the new, the flashy, and the trendy represented in the car magazines.”

 

 

Discover and Reporter:
Wang Jing, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. (@justqdjing)

Vulnerabilities Description:

Amazon has a computer bug security problem. Both Amazon itself and its websites are vulnerable to different kind of attacks. This allows hackers to do phishing attacks to Amazon users.

 

When a user is redirected from amazon to another site, amazon will check a variable named “token”. Every redirected website will be given one token. This idea is OK. However, all URLs related to the redirected website use the same token. This means if the authenticated site itself has Open Redirect vulnerabilities. Then victims can be redirected to any site from Amazon.

 

The program code flaw can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Microsoft IE (9 9.0.8112.16421) of Windows 7, Mozilla Firefox (37.0.2) & Google Chromium 42.0.2311 (64-bit) of Ubuntu (14.04.2),Apple Safari 6.1.6 of Mac OS X v10.9 Mavericks.

Use a website for the following tests. The website is “http://www.diebiyi.com/articles“. Suppose this website is malicious,

 

 


(1) Kindle Daily Post Open Redirect & Amazon Covert Redirect Based on kindlepost.com

(1.1) Kindle Daily Post Open Redirect Security Vulnerability

Vulnerable Links:

Poc:

 

 

(1.2) Amazon Covert Redirect Based on kindlepost.com

Vulnerable URL of Amazon:

POC:

 

 

kindlepost_com

 

 

 

(2) Omnivoracious Open Redirect & Amazon Covert Redirect Based on omnivoracious.com

(2.1) Omnivoracious Open Redirect Security Vulnerability

Vulnerable Links:

POC:

 

 

(2.2) Amazon Covert Redirect Based on omnivoracious.com

Vulnerable URL:

POC:

 

 

omnivoracious_com

 

 

 

(3) Car Lust Open Redirect & Amazon Covert Redirect Based on carlustblog.com

(3.1) Car Lust Open Redirect Security Vulnerability

Vulnerable Links:

POC:

 

 

(3.2) Amazon Covert Redirect Based on carlustblog.com

Vulnerable URL:

POC:

 

 

carlustblog_com

 

 

 

Vulnerabilities Disclosure:

The vulnerabilities were reported to Amazon in 2014. Amazon has patch the vulnerabilities.

 

 

 

 

Related Articles:
http://seclists.org/fulldisclosure/2015/Jan/23
http://lists.openwall.net/full-disclosure/2015/01/12/2
http://www.tetraph.com/blog/computer-security/amazon-covert-redirect/
https://progressive-comp.com/?l=full-disclosure&m=142104346821481&w=1
http://computerobsess.blogspot.com/2015/06/amazon-covert-redirect_17.html
http://permalink.gmane.org/gmane.comp.security.fulldisclosure/1429
http://tetraph.blog.163.com/blog/static/23460305120155176411897/
http://diebiyi.com/articles/security/amazon-covert-redirect/
https://itswift.wordpress.com/2015/01/17/amazon-covert-redirect/
http://marc.info/?l=full-disclosure&m=142104346821481&w=4
http://securityrelated.blogspot.com/2015/01/amazon-covert-redirec
http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/computer-web-security/amazon-covert-redirect/

Facebook Old Generated URLs Still Vulnerable to Open Redirect Attacks & A New Open Redirect Web Security Bugs

facebook_4


Facebook Old Generated URLs Still Vulnerable to Open Redirect Attacks & A New Open Redirect Web Security Bugs




Domain:
http://www.facebook.com



“Facebook is an online social networking service headquartered in Menlo Park, California. Its website was launched on February 4, 2004, by Mark Zuckerberg with his college roommates and fellow Harvard University students Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes. The founders had initially limited the website’s membership to Harvard students, but later expanded it to colleges in the Boston area, the Ivy League, and Stanford University. It gradually added support for students at various other universities and later to high-school students. Since 2006, anyone who is at least 13 years old is allowed to become a registered user of the website, though the age requirement may be higher depending on applicable local laws. Its name comes from a colloquialism for the directory given to it by American universities students.” (Wikipedia)



“Facebook had over 1.44 billion monthly active users as of March 2015.Because of the large volume of data users submit to the service, Facebook has come under scrutiny for their privacy policies. Facebook, Inc. held its initial public offering in February 2012 and began selling stock to the public three months later, reaching an original peak market capitalization of $104 billion. As of February 2015 Facebook reached a market capitalization of $212 Billion.” (Wikipedia)





Discover:
Wang Jing, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. (@justqdjing)
http://www.tetraph.com/wangjing/

 



(1) General Vulnerabilities Description:

(1.1) Two Facebook vulnerabilities are introduced in this article.

Facebook has a computer cyber security bug problem. It can be exploited by Open Redirect attacks. This could allow a user to create a specially crafted URL, that if clicked, would redirect a victim from the intended legitimate web site to an arbitrary web site of the attacker’s choosing. Such attacks are useful as the crafted URL initially appear to be a web page of a trusted site. This could be leveraged to direct an unsuspecting user to a web page containing attacks that target client side software such as a web browser or document rendering programs.


Since Facebook is trusted by large numbers of other websites. Those vulnerabilities can be used to do “Covert Redirect” to other websites such as Amazon, eBay, Go-daddy, Yahoo, 163, Mail.ru etc.

 

(1.1.1)

One Facebook Open Redirect vulnerability was reported to Facebook. Facebook adopted a new mechanism to patch it. Though the reported URL redirection vulnerabilities are patched. However, all old generated URLs are still vulnerable to the attacks. Section (2) gives detail of it.

The reason may be related to Facebook’s third-party interaction system or database management system or both. Another reason may be related to Facebook’s design for different kind of browsers.

 

(1.1.2) Another new Open Redirect vulnerability related to Facebook is introduced, too. For reference, please read section (3).

The vulnerabilities can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on IE (9.0) of Windows 8, Firefox (24.0) & Google Chromium 30.0.1599.114 ubuntu0.14.04.1.1064 (64-bit) of Ubuntu (12.10),Safari 6.1.6 of Mac OS X Lion 10.7.



(1.2) Facebook’s URL Redirection System Related to “*.php” Files

All URLs’ redirection are based on several files, such l.php, a.php, landing.php and so on.

The main redirection are based on file “l.php” (Almost all redirection links are using it right now).

For file “l.php”, one parameter “h” is used for authentication. When it mentions to file “a.php”, parameter “eid” is used for authentication. All those two files use parameter “u” for the url redirected to. In some other files such as “landing.php”, parameters such as “url”, “next” are used.

<1>For parameter “h”, two forms of authentication are used.

<a>h=HAQHyinFq

<b>h=hAQHalW1CAQHrkVIQNNqgwhxRWLNsFVeH3auuImlbR1CgKA

<2>For parameter “eid”, one form of authentication is used.

<a>eid=AQLP8sRq6lbU0jz0lARx9A9uetB6FIF1N2-Yjj_ePj0d_ezubjstZeDo6qDsalKVJwy6uDb_hQ-9tBsA2dVoQRq0lniOu0os_gPe3gY5l8lYblhQSwBtdvgjXjNqaxLZMYoasr3vv46tFsh1fL7q4kjT2LFw52dnJWd4SE8qc0YuPWfgPeQywgM2wl0CoW-lftWkr2dX0dLcytyHjXnvhKfVS_pQBllszUzsPENxE6EuZ-53Lh188o56idnfyyk2L58pE7C94PF-za4ZVB0qbuA2EnPcSJI-7oIiIJmIhifHe0CYTzG512-Z_heN44VlyJHevhS9auAR8-lFCAIlYymnT_Qiwp92RxjNOfBypBvszQUrvB6PH3fANn1prfMBVm4RD_GFel14KVDS5USswbTOTkL3sZNhHUqqPHwBwU3JFePMMuwsfesigH85B_AxCsXUIWN7klKGSq8bPPsKSHttsa9hkkMpSfRKL7D_xwW4dU2xlmfGWil7jYRJmwfbOeF0zujk1FRBuM757tbfFMav-J-K9npbdrDrCuUVqV__Tf7CGZ89nPl-M2d09pE9enJj0OBXOaSXZX16LKaYnv1Wh4GKme7C-EOunITxyQtp1zy-48Uaz9mxO2x4bw7sBDfzDStF_Al8_0SMjWNTh-J38rBHAgT96X-dPFI43HU3x3fVymE9szrclBpvTaSfYezatgMzf77s3lQrQAMSlwSSRIzRuoFvQBmWKT0T5ZFgH5ykhYKhNMiKj577UO5g2Ojm-_-KKF4N_DBuG5R-I6EOSlhok2xUkpKVDnDcxZFTLxGmx5xc56J5kZLjJ96wnF2fH09Q19Qc2aU3xYFlEFrKjrlLpwGyOyCDx7_z7y1O4Efqew3Fa0Cb9s6Kk2jpLF5XEIaYzzXOLAffxXG6icBJVovb9RPmiZ5s9dKYYotLol68_X04O05bEvVccPEh-IQwX_VTMt3f23be2MECEqR2l1A1ZkJx4qP00GI1pZhU_CXAnjSaTNmtaINRUeSsLNEZZsPwpWJMfeeGSwuof9krC05eSWjO0jH9tua0KteMYhj8i-3dwSBp4f7nMcFwH5ltfCLhMCYNB8rxgzcAczyhLIo2UY-3FSaJXBZ0lvuZBvnj7myUnyc2lCcy-fWh93MRRaJrrinjtfr9fDSMHM9Cja5xi0eG3Vs0aClnWbeJZA79TvmYt7E53HfwGuv5-EJOqRh3cwZF-53uPHA73ikUk3xTApjQunJM4uIBhpy7iBIgn_OXXo3X03YUJtJcDuC20ocJbZ310VHliox5tYZF2oiMaOfgo9Y9KeqgsrJgwPCJeif4aB0Ne4g_oM_Tuqt2pXbdgoCawHIApF087eFKJqejp0jpEkJerXPyK-IqsD_SQfIm_2WJSkzwzATwQKs

 

 

 


(2) Vulnerability Description 1:

(2.1) A security researcher reported two Open Redirect vulnerabilities to Facebook in 2013. The following are the two links reported.

Though a new mechanism was adopted. However, all old generated redirections still work by parameter “h” and “eid”.

 

 

(2.2) A website was used for the following tests. The website is “http://www.tetraph.com/“. Suppose this website is malicious.

(2.2.1)

<1>First test

<a>file: “l.php”

<b>URL parameter: “u”

<c>authentication parameter: “h”

<d>form: “h=HAQHyinFq”.

<e>The authentication has no relation with all other parameters, such as “s”.

Examples:

URL 1:

Redirect Forbidden:

Redirect Works:

 

URL 2:

Redirect Forbidden:

Redirect Works:

 

 

(2.2.2)

<2>Second test. It is the same situation as above.

<a>file: “l.php”,

<b>url parameter “u”

<c>authentication parameter: “h”

<d>form: “h=hAQHalW1CAQHrkVIQNNqgwhxRWLNsFVeH3auuImlbR1CgKA”.

<e>The authentication has no relation to all other parameters, such as “env”, “s”.

 

Examples:

URL 1:

Redirect Forbidden:

 

URL 2:

Redirect Forbidden:

Redirect Works:

 

 

 

(3) Facebook File “a.php” Open Redirect Security Vulnerability

 

(3.1)

<a>file: “a.php”

<b>parameter “u”

<c> authentication parameter: “eid”

<d> form: “eid=5967147530925355409.6013336879369.AQKBG5nt468YgKeiSdgExZQRjwGb9r6EOu-Uc5WPvi-EVHEzadq8YSrgSvUzbMmxKPPfTgM-JrPff7tN38luc-8h16lxL0Gj_4qs1-58yWgXirMH4AEf8sOEsZc5DTx7yFndgODvD5NrC-314BIj4pZvMhlljXv89lHRH6pBgyGGVm-oWBDIF8CuRER1f5ZGbKdsiUcBISdWTninVzvBdW1mZY0SWzqT21fZmhgVKtdkRf5l_pag7hAmotFK9HI5XHfGicWVqzRyTNiDIYjyVjTv4km2FOEp7WP3w65aVUKP_w”.

<e>The authentication has no relation to all other parameters, such as “mac”, “_tn_”.

Examples:

Vulnerable URL:

https://www.facebook.com/a.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Ffb-nym.adnxs.com%2Ffclick%3Fclickenc%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fbs.serving-sys.com%252FBurstingPipe%252FadServer.bs%253Fcn%253Dtf%2526c%253D20%2526mc%253Dclick%2526pli%253D8782431%2526PluID%253D0%2526ord%253D%257BCACHEBUSTER%257D%26cp%3D%253Fdi%253DzGxX6INl-T9QvRSibN_3P5qZmZmZmfk_UL0Uomzf9z_ObFfog2X5P_WPPCuD-to_CKEeLew3cQIQkc9SAAAAAHQcDQB2BQAAKAcAAAIAAAD4iq8AanMCAAAAAQBVU0QAVVNEAGMASABq4DoFka4BAgUCAQUAAIgAkinLswAAAAA.%252Fcnd%253D%252521qQYdPgjeqqYBEPiVvgUY6uYJIAA.%252Freferrer%253Dfacebook.com%252F&mac=AQJllyaGzLYoRoQz&__tn__=%2AB&eid=5967147530925355409.6013336879369.AQKBG5nt468YgKeiSdgExZQRjwGb9r6EOu-Uc5WPvi-EVHEzadq8YSrgSvUzbMmxKPPfTgM-JrPff7tN38luc-8h16lxL0Gj_4qs1-58yWgXirMH4AEf8sOEsZc5DTx7yFndgODvD5NrC-314BIj4pZvMhlljXv89lHRH6pBgyGGVm-oWBDIF8CuRER1f5ZGbKdsiUcBISdWTninVzvBdW1mZY0SWzqT21fZmhgVKtdkRf5l_pag7hAmotFK9HI5XHfGicWVqzRyTNiDIYjyVjTv4km2FOEp7WP3w65aVUKP_w

POC:

 

(3.2) Facebook Login Page Covert Redirect Security Vulnerability

Vulnerable URL Related to Login.php Based on a.php:

https://www.facebook.com/login.php?next=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.facebook.com%2Fa.php%3Fu%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.rp.edu.sg%252Fopenhouse2014%252F%253Futm_source%253Dfacebook%2526utm_medium%253Dcpc%2526utm_campaign%253Dopenhouse2014%26mac%3DAQKyRHClixA20iGL%26__tn__%3D%252AB%26eid%3DAQLAHC7szSXhT3FaEBXe5YFsOC0kEM4nN9PlVovdilvuzROStFXoYqptlKpcJAzHNTLpxWAIrmJYsR6RVG_Htk6pgT7Iol6lWHDJvn7Cg5sqigvE_eVS895Eh6fSwxH3fgfWcNDrEl5_lFgRbrJtC71R68rW_VXS9QCN7Po9wTWDnbyZTaXawdrdQyibryvA56Spr5GcUDUboRFxy8YSr2ahUV_goDAQA3OKmCACEn8CmyMrOT5gZq3iwusysdchRxLIv5N82-GMTiDxXXgkDYf1P7XwvklWpfy_cEItZzV5v0P7fRZB3qiq_RDx9jhEzndlJhUJL2aWE0ldPmGKGz9xWyvPaPLOwzBo23GQbpj2ZN_tw9B9tz2l3tGIN1yegd_Wf6PSFIZOuBXfZILvmILcxg3qz4dHx1fmgPZBpf_34mPnMEkgZqbT2WeV_GZKz8RDIg88D3vrmwyMwWxeh3xyGuddjZUjOUjPCUwrgSrWZK3XHRA7TA7tWIsQ4X1bsjx9c72mm8bZmmRBRJwqOcjsW0QEVETs_Cs9pS9QBkgX8yVPJCHuk1v_xkj4EHHH9sNP7a4GRs8olklBTKhCcJ908sVrQVT2I-cQYw2SVU9hWaWWjX2AGt3WpdT2kx6SIPoPQpX5cIC4Lcfaa7EcZFBnoQPv3mR5BNHRFTh_6Qvr01BrCG3Fv5VeDeXhM8cHk6VuBtj5smz0ZeGT5JWvub5ORJ4xzVN0zAW8V4qiKiVFKTEFMZASaZFon41VFCbhxkX0Bi62Ko64PY6uP64tCMWh6yX2o0JMc0mJWFJRp1695OCKgLXf0udRyWDESTyYgJXIlxecCmlwCEbleAsE-wtDXNOfDTXOzApr1sZO_58FBRaw-K4Z2VRXLir5mrdXTKnM1Y4rDDqGZur9G7LfuXrCr5oR1J5LJ8sVupHqsiN7-UqdakiEEIBq750KxVjaAdCyqJp_5EJ-yVMK3f2pMX7cQ2Lw6u434hHimuLN9VDPLkpSiMlPOa8RkarDSred73IfQiv-PluegYDfunZFxj1KvcAlzhVZsL-a52hJmXrOrzKuV0hyZaBLtAIo6AEoXXV30D-6iraSUphkOFzYt3ah6oRrmXLQZKm2E8Cuag5d_rAnwvIr98dn4OSa8Z4MCZemI3uH8cjxr86aE046uTA_Hm1GjYM5l7wkpHknHI8QR2q5Cioo2h6WiUO-jsIFkQ4XFgAd5IUCcAbQukXdC4GJzl18iaN8wkylsTk8aVBn6G1xZadSL0b5R3NgsYfQUVtV0g9slnOLNkgq0NLMAk0kWFs

POC:

https://www.facebook.com/login.php?next=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.facebook.com%2Fa.php%3Fu%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.stackoverflow.com%26mac%3DAQKyRHClixA20iGL%26__tn__%3D%252AB%26eid%3DAQLAHC7szSXhT3FaEBXe5YFsOC0kEM4nN9PlVovdilvuzROStFXoYqptlKpcJAzHNTLpxWAIrmJYsR6RVG_Htk6pgT7Iol6lWHDJvn7Cg5sqigvE_eVS895Eh6fSwxH3fgfWcNDrEl5_lFgRbrJtC71R68rW_VXS9QCN7Po9wTWDnbyZTaXawdrdQyibryvA56Spr5GcUDUboRFxy8YSr2ahUV_goDAQA3OKmCACEn8CmyMrOT5gZq3iwusysdchRxLIv5N82-GMTiDxXXgkDYf1P7XwvklWpfy_cEItZzV5v0P7fRZB3qiq_RDx9jhEzndlJhUJL2aWE0ldPmGKGz9xWyvPaPLOwzBo23GQbpj2ZN_tw9B9tz2l3tGIN1yegd_Wf6PSFIZOuBXfZILvmILcxg3qz4dHx1fmgPZBpf_34mPnMEkgZqbT2WeV_GZKz8RDIg88D3vrmwyMwWxeh3xyGuddjZUjOUjPCUwrgSrWZK3XHRA7TA7tWIsQ4X1bsjx9c72mm8bZmmRBRJwqOcjsW0QEVETs_Cs9pS9QBkgX8yVPJCHuk1v_xkj4EHHH9sNP7a4GRs8olklBTKhCcJ908sVrQVT2I-cQYw2SVU9hWaWWjX2AGt3WpdT2kx6SIPoPQpX5cIC4Lcfaa7EcZFBnoQPv3mR5BNHRFTh_6Qvr01BrCG3Fv5VeDeXhM8cHk6VuBtj5smz0ZeGT5JWvub5ORJ4xzVN0zAW8V4qiKiVFKTEFMZASaZFon41VFCbhxkX0Bi62Ko64PY6uP64tCMWh6yX2o0JMc0mJWFJRp1695OCKgLXf0udRyWDESTyYgJXIlxecCmlwCEbleAsE-wtDXNOfDTXOzApr1sZO_58FBRaw-K4Z2VRXLir5mrdXTKnM1Y4rDDqGZur9G7LfuXrCr5oR1J5LJ8sVupHqsiN7-UqdakiEEIBq750KxVjaAdCyqJp_5EJ-yVMK3f2pMX7cQ2Lw6u434hHimuLN9VDPLkpSiMlPOa8RkarDSred73IfQiv-PluegYDfunZFxj1KvcAlzhVZsL-a52hJmXrOrzKuV0hyZaBLtAIo6AEoXXV30D-6iraSUphkOFzYt3ah6oRrmXLQZKm2E8Cuag5d_rAnwvIr98dn4OSa8Z4MCZemI3uH8cjxr86aE046uTA_Hm1GjYM5l7wkpHknHI8QR2q5Cioo2h6WiUO-jsIFkQ4XFgAd5IUCcAbQukXdC4GJzl18iaN8wkylsTk8aVBn6G1xZadSL0b5R3NgsYfQUVtV0g9slnOLNkgq0NLMAk0kWFs





Those vulnerabilities were reported to Facebook in 2014 and they have been patched.





Several other similar products 0-day vulnerabilities have been found by some other bug hunter researchers before. Facebook has patched some of them. “The Full Disclosure mailing list is a public forum for detailed discussion of vulnerabilities and exploitation techniques, as well as tools, papers, news, and events of interest to the community. FD differs from other security lists in its open nature and support for researchers’ right to decide how to disclose their own discovered bugs. The full disclosure movement has been credited with forcing vendors to better secure their products and to publicly acknowledge and fix flaws rather than hide them. Vendor legal intimidation and censorship attempts are not tolerated here!” All the fllowing web securities have been published here, Buffer overflow, HTTP Response Splitting (CRLF), CMD Injection, SQL injection, Phishing, Cross-site scripting, CSRF, Cyber-attack, Unvalidated Redirects and Forwards, Information Leakage, Denial of Service, File Inclusion, Weak Encryption, Privilege Escalation, Directory Traversal, HTML Injection, Spam. Large number of Facebook bugs were published here. FD also publishes suggestions, advisories, solutions details related to Open Redirect vulnerabilities and cyber intelligence recommendations.








(4) Amazon Covert Redirect Security Vulnerability Based on Facebook

Since Facebook is trusted by large numbers of other websites. Those vulnerabilities can be used to do “Covert Redirect” to other websites such as Amazon.


Domain:
http://www.amazon.com


“American electronic commerce company with headquarters in Seattle, Washington. It is the largest Internet-based retailer in the United States. Amazon.com started as an online bookstore, but soon diversified, selling DVDs, Blu-rays, CDs, video downloads/streaming, MP3 downloads/streaming, software, video games, electronics, apparel, furniture, food, toys and jewelry. The company also produces consumer electronics—notably, Amazon Kindle e-book readers, Fire tablets, Fire TV and Fire Phone — and is a major provider of cloud computing services. Amazon also sells certain low-end products like USB cables under its inhouse brand AmazonBasics. Amazon has separate retail websites for United States, United Kingdom & Ireland, France, Canada, Germany, The Netherlands, Italy, Spain, Australia, Brazil, Japan, China, India and Mexico. Amazon also offers international shipping to certain other countries for some of its products. In 2011, it had professed an intention to launch its websites in Poland and Sweden.” (Wikipedia)

 

 

The vulnerability exists at “redirect.html?” page with “&location” parameter, e.g.

 

(4.1) When a user is redirected from Amazon to another site, Amazon will check parameters “&token”. If the redirected URL’s domain is OK, Amazon will allow the reidrection.

However, if the URLs in a redirected domain have open URL redirection vulnerabilities themselves, a user could be redirected from Amazon to a vulnerable URL in that domain first and later be redirected from this vulnerable site to a malicious site. This is as if being redirected from Amazon directly.

One of the vulnerable domain is,
http://www.facebook.com

 

(4.2) Use one of webpages for the following tests. The webpage address is “http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope“. Suppose it is malicious.

Vulnerable URL:

POC:

 

 

 

 

 

Related Articles:
http://seclists.org/fulldisclosure/2015/Jan/22
http://permalink.gmane.org/gmane.comp.security.fulldisclosure/1428
http://lists.openwall.net/full-disclosure/2015/01/12/1
http://marc.info/?l=full-disclosure&m=142104333521454&w=4
http://diebiyi.com/articles/security/facebook-open-redirect/
https://www.facebook.com/essaybeans/posts/570476126427191
http://germancast.blogspot.de/2015/06/facebook-web-security-0day-bug.html
https://mathfas.wordpress.com/2015/01/11/facebook-open-redirect/
http://essaybeans.lofter.com/post/1cc77d20_7300027
http://qianqiuxue.tumblr.com/post/120750458855/itinfotech-facebook-web-security-0day-bug
https://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?story_fbid=472994806188548&id=405943696226993
https://mathfas.wordpress.com/2015/01/11/facebook-open-redirect/
http://www.tetraph.com/blog/phishing/facebook-open-redirect/
http://itinfotech.tumblr.com/post/120750347586/facebook-web-security-0day-bug
http://ittechnology.lofter.com/post/1cfbf60d_72fd108
http://russiapost.blogspot.ru/2015/06/facebook-web-security-0day-bug.html
https://twitter.com/tetraphibious/status/606676645265567744
https://plus.google.com/u/0/110001022997295385049/posts/hb6seddG561
http://whitehatpost.blog.163.com/blog/static/24223205420155501020837/
http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/computer-security/facebook-open-redirect/







Yahoo Yahoo.com Yahoo.co.jp Open Redirect (Unvalidated Redirects and Forwards) Web Security Bugs

yahoo_1

 

Yahoo Yahoo.com Yahoo.co.jp Open Redirect (Unvalidated Redirects and Forwards) Web Security Bugs

 

Though Yahoo lists open redirect vulnerability on its bug bounty program. However, it seems Yahoo do not take this vulnerability seriously at all.

 

Multiple Open Redirect vulnerabilities were reported Yahoo. All Yahoo’s responses were “It is working as designed”. However, these vulnerabilities were patched later.

 

Several other security researcher complained about getting similar treatment, too.
http://seclists.org/fulldisclosure/2014/Jan/51
http://seclists.org/fulldisclosure/2014/Feb/119

 

All Open Redirect Vulnerabilities are intended behavior? If so, why patch them later?

yahoo_wont_fix_meitu_1

 


From report of CNET, Yahoo’s users were attacked by redirection vulnerabilities. “Yahoo.com visitors over the last few days may have been served with malware via the Yahoo ad network, according to Fox IT, a security firm in the Netherlands. Users visiting pages with the malicious ads were redirected to sites armed with code that exploits vulnerabilities in Java and installs a variety of different malware. ”
http://www.cnet.com/news/yahoo-users-exposed-to-malware-attack/

 

Moreover, since Yahoo is well-known worldwide. these vulnerabilities can be used to attack other companies such as Google, eBay, The New York Times, Amazon, Godaddy, Alibaba, Netease, e.g. by bypassing their Open Redirect filters (Covert Redirect). These cyber security bug problems have not been patched. Other similar web and computer flaws will be published in the near future.

 

The vulnerabilities can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Microsoft IE (10.0.9200.16750) of Windows 8, Mozilla Firefox (34.0) & Google Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0 ubuntu0.14.04.1.1064 (64-bit) of Ubuntu (14.04),Apple Safari 6.1.6 of Mac OS X Lion 10.7.

 

Disclosed by:
Jing Wang, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. (@justqdjing)
http://www.tetraph.com/wangjing

 

Both Yahoo and Yahoo Japan online web application has a computer cyber security bug problem. It can be exploited by Unvalidated Redirects and Forwards (URL Redirection) attacks. This could allow a user to create a specially crafted URL, that if clicked, would redirect a victim from the intended legitimate web site to an arbitrary web site of the attacker’s choosing. Such attacks are useful as the crafted URL initially appear to be a web page of a trusted site. This could be leveraged to direct an unsuspecting user to a web page containing attacks that target client side software such as a web browser or document rendering programs.

 

BugTraq is a full disclosure moderated mailing list for the *detailed* discussion and announcement of computer security vulnerabilities: what they are, how to exploit them, and how to fix them. The below things be posted to the Bugtraq list: (a) Information on computer or network related security vulnerabilities (UNIX, Windows NT, or any other). (b) Exploit programs, scripts or detailed processes about the above. (c) Patches, workarounds, fixes. (d) Announcements, advisories or warnings. (e) Ideas, future plans or current works dealing with computer/network security. (f) Information material regarding vendor contacts and procedures. (g) Individual experiences in dealing with above vendors or security organizations. (h) Incident advisories or informational reporting. (i) New or updated security tools. A large number of the fllowing web securities have been published here, Injection, Broken Authentication and Session Management, Cross-Site Scripting (XSS), Insecure Direct Object References, Security Misconfiguration, Sensitive Data Exposure, Missing Function Level Access Control, Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF), Using Components with Known Vulnerabilities, Unvalidated Redirects and Forwards. It also publishes suggestions, advisories, solutions details related to Open Redirect vulnerabilities and cyber intelligence recommendations.

 

 

(1) Yahoo.com Open Redirect

 

Domain:
yahoo.com

 

“Yahoo Inc. (styled as Yahoo!) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Sunnyvale, California. It is globally known for its Web portal, search engine Yahoo Search, and related services, including Yahoo Directory, Yahoo Mail, Yahoo News, Yahoo Finance, Yahoo Groups, Yahoo Answers, advertising, online mapping, video sharing, fantasy sports and its social media website. It is one of the most popular sites in the United States. According to news sources, roughly 700 million people visit Yahoo websites every month. Yahoo itself claims it attracts more than half a billion consumers every month in more than 30 languages. Yahoo was founded by Jerry Yang and David Filo in January 1994 and was incorporated on March 1, 1995. Marissa Mayer, a former Google executive, serves as CEO and President of the company.” (Wikipedia)

 

Vulnerable URLs:

 

 

(2) Yahoo.co.jp Open Redirect

 

Domain:
yahoo.co.jp

 

“Yahoo! JAPAN Corporation (ヤフージャパン株式会社 Yafū Japan Kabushiki-gaisha?) is a Japanese internet company formed as a joint venture between the American internet company Yahoo! and the Japanese internet company SoftBank. It is headquartered at Midtown Tower in the Tokyo Midtown complex in Akasaka, Minato, Tokyo. Yahoo! Japan was listed on JASDAQ in November 1997. In January 2000, it became the first stock in Japanese history to trade for more than ¥100 million per share. The company was listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange in October 2003 and became part of the Nikkei 225 stock market index in 2005. Yahoo! Japan acquired the naming rights for the Fukuoka Dome in 2005, renaming the dome as the “Fukuoka Yahoo! Japan Dome”. The “Yahoo Dome” is the home field for the Fukuoka SoftBank Hawks, a professional baseball team majority owned by SoftBank.” (Wikipedia)

Use one of webpages for the following tests. The webpage address is “http://itinfotech.tumblr.com/“. Suppose that this webpage is malicious.

 

Vulnerable URL:

POC:

 

 

 

 

More Articles:
http://seclists.org/fulldisclosure/2014/Dec/88
http://marc.info/?l=full-disclosure&m=141897158416178&w=4
https://www.mail-archive.com/fulldisclosure%40seclists.org/msg01467.html
http://securityrelated.blogspot.com/2014/12/yahoo-yahoocom-yahoocojp-open-redirect.html
https://hackertopic.wordpress.com/2015/01/15/yahoo-yahoo-japan-vulnerable-to-spams/
https://plus.google.com/110001022997295385049/posts/4GTENtJY9XE
https://twitter.com/justqdjing/status/546910373169741825
https://www.facebook.com/pcwebsecurities/posts/701648936647693
http://homehut.lofter.com/post/1d226c81_6e6884f
https://tetraph.wordpress.com/2014/12/28/yahoo-open-redirect/
http://itinfotech.tumblr.com/post/118511508076/securitypost-yahooyahoo-japan-may-be
https://computerpitch.wordpress.com/2015/01/27/yahoo-vulnerable-to-spams/
http://testingcode.lofter.com/post/1cd26eb9_73096b9
http://lifegrey.tumblr.com/post/120767572004/yahoo-url-redirection-bug
http://blog.163.com/greensun_2006/blog/static/1112211220155565419870/
http://aibiyi.blogspot.com/2015/06/yahoo-open-redirect.html
https://www.facebook.com/tetraph/posts/1659455054274454
http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/computer-web-security/yahoo-to-spams/
http://www.tetraph.com/blog/spamming/yahoo-url-redirection/

 

 

 

 

 

Google’s DoubleClick Advertising Platform Vulnerable to Open Redirect Attacks

8

Google’s DoubleClick Advertising Platform Vulnerable to Open Redirect Attacks

Although Google does not include Open Redirect vulnerabilities in its bug bounty program, its preventive measures against Open Redirect attackshave been quite thorough and effective to date.

However, Google DoubleClick.net advertising system is vulnerable to Open Redirect Attacks. The vulnerability was found by a security researcher Wang Jing from School of Physical and Mathematical Science, Nanyang Technology University, Singapore.

These redirections can be easily used by spammers, too.

Moreover, these vulnerabilities can be used to attack other companies such as Google, eBay, The New York Times, e.g. by bypassing their Open Redirect filters(Covert Redirect).

http://www.hotforsecurity.com/blog/googles-doubleclick-advertising-platform-vulnerable-to-open-redirect-attacks-10822.html

OAuthとOpenIDに深刻な脆弱性か–Facebookなど大手サイトに影響も

digital-security-padlock-protection-binary-virus-hack-malware

 

OpenSSLの脆弱性「Heartbleed」に続き、人気のオープンソースセキュリ ティソフトウェアでまた1つ大きな脆弱性が見つかった。今回、脆 弱性が見つかったのはログインツールの「OAuth」と「OpenID」で、これらのツールは多数のウェブサイトと、Google、Facebook、 Microsoft、LinkedInといったテクノロジ大手に使われている。

 

シンガポールにあるNanyang Technological University(南洋理工大学)で学ぶ博士課程の学生Wang Jing氏は、「Covert Redirect」という深刻な脆弱性によって、影響を受けるサイトのドメイン上でログイン用ポップアップ画面を偽装できることを発見した。Covert Redirectは、既知のエクスプロイトパラメータに基づいている。

 

たとえば、悪意あるフィッシングリンクをクリックすると、 Facebook内でポップアップウィンドウが開き、アプリを許可するよう求められる。 Covert Redirect脆弱性の場合、本物に似た偽ドメイン名を使ってユーザーをだますのではなく、本物のサイトアドレスを使って許可を求める。

 

ユーザーがログインの許可を選択すると、正当なウェブサイトではなく攻撃者に個人データが送られてしまう。渡される個人データは、何を要求されるかにもよるが、メールアドレス、誕生日、連絡先リスト、さらにはアカウント管理情報にも及ぶ可能性がある。

 

アプリを許可したかどうかにかかわらず、標的になったユーザーはその後、攻撃者が選ぶウェブサイトにリダイレクトされ、そこでさらなる攻撃を受ける可能性がある。

 

Wang 氏によると、すでにFacebookには連絡し、この脆弱性を報告したが、同社は「OAuth 2.0に関連するリスクは理解していた」と述べた上で、「当プラットフォーム上の各アプリケーションにホワイトリストの利用を強制することが難しい」た め、このバグを修正することは「短期間で達成できるものではない」と返答したという。

 

影響を受けるサイトはFacebookだけではない。Wang氏は、Google、LinkedIn、Microsoftにもこの件を報告したが、問題への対処についてさまざまな回答を受け取ったと述べている。

 

Google(OpenID を利用している)はWang氏に、現在この問題に取り組んでいると伝えた。LinkedInは、この件に関するブログを公開 したと述べた。一方でMicrosoftは、調査を行ったところ、脆弱性はサードパーティーのドメインに存在しており、自社サイトには存在しないと述べ た。

 

この記事は海外CBS Interactive発の記事を朝日インタラクティブが日本向けに編集したものです。



 

 

 

関連ニュース:
http://www.cnet.com/news/serious-security-flaw-in-oauth-and-openid-discovered/
http://tech.firstpost.com/news-analysis/after-heartbleed-major-covert-redirect-flaw-threatens-oauth-openid-and-the-internet-222945.html
http://techxplore.com/news/2014-05-math-student-oauth-openid-vulnerability.html
http://phys.org/news/2014-05-math-student-oauth-openid-vulnerability.html
http://www.tomsguide.com/us/facebook-google-covert-redirect-flaw,news-18726.html
http://news.yahoo.com/facebook-google-users-threatened-security-192547549.html
http://thehackernews.com/2014/05/nasty-covert-redirect-vulnerability.html
http://www.scmagazine.com/covert-redirect-vulnerability-impacts-oauth-20-openid/article/345407/
http://blog.kaspersky.com/facebook-openid-oauth-vulnerable/
http://www.foxnews.com/tech/2014/05/05/facebook-google-users-threatened-by-new-security-flaw/
http://tech.ifeng.com/internet/detail_2014_05/03/36130721_0.shtml/
http://network.pconline.com.cn/471/4713896.html
http://media.sohu.com/20140504/n399096249.shtml/
http://it.people.com.cn/n/2014/0504/c1009-24969253.html
http://www.cnbeta.com/articles/288503.htm
http://tetraph.com/covert_redirect/oauth2_openid_covert_redirect.html
http://baike.baidu.com/link?url=0v9QZaGB09ePxHb70bzgWqlW-C9jieVguuDObtvJ_6WFY3h2vWnnjNDy4-jliDmqbT47SmdGS1_pZ4BbGN4Re_
https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki
http://tetraph.com/covert_redirect/
http://www.csdn.net/article/2014-05-04/2819588
http://japanbroad.blogspot.jp/2014/11/oauthopenid-facebook.html

Сингапурский студент обнаружил серьезную уязвимость в OAuth и OpenID

OAuth и OpenID — очень популярные протоколы, которые совместно используются для авторизации и аутентификации. Приложение OAuth генерирует токены для клиентов, а OpenID предоставляет возможность децентрализованной аутентификации на сторонних сайтах, раскрывая персональные данные пользователей.


Студент Ван Цзин (Wang Jing) с факультета математики Наньянского технологического университета в Сингапуре нашел способ, как злоумышленник может перехватить персональные данные пользователей, перенаправив их на вредоносный сайт после авторизации. Речь идет об уязвимости типа скрытого редиректа (covert redirect), по аналогии с известной атакой open redirect.



covert_redirect1



В этом случае провайдер (Facebook, Google и проч.) видит, что информацию запрашивает нормальное приложение, но на самом деле пользователя скрыто направляют на другой сайт, заменив значение redirect_uri в URL.



covert_redirect2



Уязвимость затрагивает множество крупных сайтов, такие как Facebook, Google, Yahoo, LinkedIn, Microsoft, VK, Mail.Ru, PayPal, GitHub и другие. Все они выдают по запросу злоумышленника персональные данные пользователя. В случае Facebook это может быть имя, фамилия, почтовый адрес, возраст, место жительства, место работы и проч.




covert_redirect3



Кстати, open redirect входит в число 10 главных атак за 2013 год по версии OWASP.


Ван Цзин опубликовал видеоролик, в котором показывает способ эксплуатации уязвимости, на примере Facebook OAuth 2.0. По его словам, защититься от таких атак можно только с помощью «белого списка» сайтов для редиректа.


источник:
http://xakep.ru/62448/




 

 

Continúan los problemas: OAuth y OpenID también son vulnerables

Un nuevo fallo de seguridad amenaza Internet. En este caso se trata de Covert Redirect y ha sido descubierto por un estudiante chino en Singapur. Las empresas tienen en sus manos solucionar este problema.

 

encrypt

 

Cuando aún resuenan los ecos de Heartbleed y el terremoto que sacudió la red, nos acabamos de enterar que otra brecha de seguridad compromete Internet. En este caso se trata de un fallo que afecta a páginas como Google, Facebook, Microsoft, Linkedin, Yahoo, PayPal, GitHub o Mail.ru que usan estas herramientas de código abierto para autenticar a sus usuarios.

 

Este error permitiría a un atacante haga creer a un usuario que una nueva ventana que redirija a Facebook es segura cuando en realidad no lo es. Hasta aquí la técnica se parece al phishing pero lo que hace lo hace diferente es que Covert Redirect, que así se llama el nuevo exploit, usa el dominio real pero hace un bypass del servidor para conseguir la info. Lo mejor que podemos hacer cuando estemos navegando y pulsemos en un sitio que abre un pop up que nos pide logearnos en Facebook o Google es cerrar esa ventana para evitar que nos redirija a sitios sospechosos.

 

Wang Jing, estudiante de doctorado en la Universidad Técnica de Nanyang (Singapur), es quien ha descubierto la vulnerabilidad y le ha puesto nombre. El problema, según Jing, es que ni el proveedor ni la compañía quieren responsabilizarse de esta brecha ya que costaría mucho tiempo y dinero. Seguramente, ahora que se conoce el caso, las compañías se pondrán manos a la obra.

 

 

 

Artículos Relacionados:

http://www.cnet.com/news/serious-security-flaw-in-oauth-and-openid-discovered/

http://techxplore.com/news/2014-05-math-student-oauth-openid-vulnerability.html

http://phys.org/news/2014-05-math-student-oauth-openid-vulnerability.html

http://www.tomsguide.com/us/facebook-google-covert-redirect-flaw,news-18726.html

http://news.yahoo.com/facebook-google-users-threatened-security-192547549.html

http://thehackernews.com/2014/05/nasty-covert-redirect-vulnerability.html

http://www.scmagazine.com/covert-redirect-vulnerability-impacts-oauth-20-openid/article/345407/

http://computerobsess.blogspot.com/2014/10/id-oauth.html

http://tetraph.com/covert_redirect/oauth2_openid_covert_redirect.html

http://russiapost.blogspot.ru/2014/11/openid-oauth-20.html?view=sidebar

https://hackertopic.wordpress.com/2014/07/11/oauth-openid-covert-redirect

http://germancast.blogspot.de/2014/11/sicherheitslucke-in-oauth-20-und-openid.html

http://diebiyi.com/articles/security/covert-redirect/sicherheitslucke-in-oauth-2-0-und-openid-gefunden/

http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/covert-redirect/openid-oauth-2.0

https://webtechwire.wordpress.com/2014/12/09/oauth%E3%81%A8openid%E3%81

http://tetraph.tumblr.com/post/118850487757/itinfotech-covert

http://webtechhut.blogspot.com/2014/12/continuan-los-problemas-oauth-y-openid.html

http://frenchairing.blogspot.fr/2014/11/des-vulnerabilites-pour-les-boutons.html

https://itswift.wordpress.com/2014/06/06/covert-redirect-openid-oauth

http://blog.kaspersky.com/facebook-openid-oauth-vulnerable/

http://itprompt.blogspot.com/2014/12/falha-de-seguranca-afeta-logins-de.html

http://www.foxnews.com/tech/2014/05/05/facebook-google-users-threatened-by-new-security-flaw/

http://www.tetraph.com/blog/covert-redirect/sicherheitslucke-in-oauth-2-0-und-openid-gefunden/

http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/covert-redirect/372/